Biostatistics Notes

According to my WordPress dashboard, there are still people using this blog for study guides. I am not as prolific with these study aides as I used to be because I am a graduate student now but I do have some other useful bio major-related notes that I thought some people may be interested in. I took a Biostatistics course earlier this year so I have posted my notes for that course. I may post a few more times with notes from other classes if it looks like people would like that.

Enjoy.

Biostatistics Notes 1

Biostatistics Notes 2

Organic Chemistry II Study Guides

All right, this is the last of my notes. These are my advanced organic chemistry notes from a class I took in fall 2011. I went overboard with these ones when I was taking the class; I made a poster for everything. Hopefully you can find something to help you within the dizzying amount of mechanisms. Enjoy.

1,4 Addition of Soft Nucleophiles, Robinson Accumulation, Cuprate 1,4 Addition

1,4 Addition of Soft Nucleophiles, Robinson Accumulation, Cuprate 1,4 Addition

Aldehyde Protection and Acetal Deprotection

Aldehyde Protection and Acetal Deprotection

Aldehyde to Imine in Basic Conditions and Acidic Conditions, Ketone to Eminine

Aldehyde to Imine in Basic Conditions and Acidic Conditions, Ketone to Eminine

Aldolates from Enolates and Aldehyde

Aldolates from Enolates and Aldehyde

Alkyl Lithium Reagent Mechanism and Preparation of Alkyl Lithium Reagent

Alkyl Lithium Reagent Mechanism and Preparation of Alkyl Lithium Reagent

Alpha Halogenation and Halofrom Reaction

Alpha Halogenation and Halofrom Reaction

Bayer-Villager Reaction

Bayer-Villager Reaction 1

Carbon-13 NMR Scale

Carbon-13 NMR Scale

Carbonyls to Olefins

Carbonyls to Olefins

Chiral to Racemic Mixture

Chiral to Racemic Mixture

Claisen Condensation and Intramolecular Variant Diechmann Condensation

Claisen Condensation and Intramolecular Variant Diechmann Condensation

Cycloaddition of Osmium Tetroxide

Cycloaddition of Osmium Tetroxide

Decarboxylation

Decarboxylation

Enolate Irreversible Bases and Stereoselectivity of Enolates Using Chairs

Enolate Irreversible Bases and Stereoselectivity of Enolates Using Chairs

Enolate Transition States

Enolate Transition States

Epoxide Reaction Under Acidic Conditions

Epoxide Reaction Under Acidic Conditions

Ester Formation from Acyl Chloride and Anhyrides

Ester Formation from Acyl Chloride and Anhyrides

Fischer Esterification and Epoxidation with M-Chloroperoxybenzoic Acid

Fischer Esterification and Epoxidation with M-Chloroperoxybenzoic Acid

Fischer Indsle Reaction and Padl Knorr Reaction

Fischer Indsle Reaction and Padl Knorr Reaction

Using Acid Chloride to Make Esters, Amides, and Carboxylic Acids

Formation of Acid Chloride and Hell, Voldhart, and Zalinsky Reaction

Formation of Benzyne During Amino Substitution, Benzyne from Grignard Reagent, and Kobayashi Technique for Making Benzyne

Formation of Benzyne During Amino Substitution, Benzyne from Grignard Reagent, and Kobayashi Technique for Making Benzyne

Gabriel Amine Synthesis, Reductive Amination, and Reducing Ketones to Amides

Gabriel Amine Synthesis, Reductive Amination, and Reducing Ketones to Amides

Grignard Reagent Mechanism and Preparation of Grignard Reagent

Grignard Reagent Mechanism and Preparation of Grignard Reagent

Halohydrin to Epoxides and Halohydrin Synthesis

Halohydrin to Epoxides and Halohydrin Synthesis

Hartwig Buchwald Reaction

Hartwig Buchwald Reaction

Heck Catalytic Cycle

Heck Catalytic Cycle

Hydration of Aldehyde and Jones Oxidation

Hydration of Aldehyde and Jones Oxidation

Hydrogen NMR Scale

Hydrogen NMR Scale

Hydrolysis of Isonitriles to Make Carboxylic Acids and Hydrolysis of Esters to Make Carboxylic Acids

Hydrolysis of Isonitriles to Make Carboxylic Acids and Hydrolysis of Esters to Make Carboxylic Acids

Intramolecular Substitution of Benzyne and Annealing Benzene to Dienes

Intramolecular Substitution of Benzyne and Annealing Benzene to Dienes

Infrared Spectra Values in Detail

IR Spectra Values Detail

Infrared Spectra Values

IR Spectra Values

Keto-Enol Tautomerization and Forming Nucleophile Enolate

Keto-Enol Tautomerization and Forming Nucleophile Enolate

Kumada, Stille, Negishi Catalytic Cycle

Kumada, Stille, Negishi Catalytic Cycle

Lactonization, Iodolactonization, and Selenolactonization

Lactonization, Iodolactonization, and Selenolactonization

Making Phenol and Migrations

Making Phenol and Migrations

Miguel-Claisen Condensation and Condensation of Ketones

Miguel-Claisen Condensation and Condensation of Ketones

Oxidation using Pyridinium Chlorochromate or Pyridinium Dichromate

Oxidation using Pyridinium Chlorochromate or Pyridinium Dichromate

Oxidation using Swern Reaction

Oxidation using Swern Reaction

Propargyl Grignard Reagents, Propargyl to Propargyl Alcohol, and Ester to Tertiary Alcohol Using Grignard Reagents

Propargyl Grignard Reagents, Propargyl to Propargyl Alcohol, and Ester to Tertiary Alcohol Using Grignard Reagents

Reduction Using Wilkinson’s Catalyst

Reduction Using Wilkinson's Catalyst

Rubidium Ring-Closing Metathesis

Rubidium Ring-Closing Metathesis

Simmons-Smith Reactions, Formation of Simmons-Smith Reagent, and Other Carbenes to Make Cyclopropanes

Simmons-Smith Reactions, Formation of Simmons-Smith Reagent, and Other Carbenes to Make Cyclopropanes

SnAr for Bromo-Nitro Arene and SnAr for Substituted Pyridine

SnAr for Bromo-Nitro Arene and SnAr for Substituted Pyridine

Sodium Borohydride and Lithium Aluminum Hydride

Sodium Borohydride and Lithium Aluminum Hydride

Sterochemistry of Alkylation

Sterochemistry of Alkylation

Suzuki Catalytic Cycle

Suzuki Catalytic Cycle

Synthesis of Amines Using Paladium Catalyst or Lanthanum Catalyst

Synthesis of Amines Using Paladium Catalyst or Lanthanum Catalyst

Using Acid Anhydride to Make Esters, Amides, and Carboxylic Acids

Using Acid Anhydride to Make Esters, Amides, and Carboxylic Acids

Using Acid Chloride to Make Esters, Amides, and Carboxylic Acids

Using Acid Chloride to Make Esters, Amides, and Carboxylic Acids

Using Esters to Make Amides and Using Amides to Make Carboxylic Acids

Using Esters to Make Amides and Using Amides to Make Carboxylic Acids

Williamson’s Ether Synthesis and Ether SN Reaction

Williamson's Ether Synthesis and Ether SN Reaction

Withig Reaction and Forming Phosphonium Ylide

Withig Reaction and Forming Phosphonium Ylide

Withig Reaction

Withig Reaction

Organic Chemistry I Study Guides

As requested, here are some organic chemistry notes from a basic organic chemistry class that I took in spring 2011. The order of these notes are not the order in which they were learned so the information may be from earlier in the year or may be more advanced. The majority of these are mechanisms. Enjoy.

Substitution of Alkyl Sulfonates

Substitution of Alkyl Sulfonates

SN2 Mechanism

SN2 Mechanism

SN1 Mechanism

SN1 Mechanism

Rearrangement of Alcohol Dehydration: Methyl Shifts 

Rearrangement of Alcohol Dehydration Methyl Shifts

Rearrangement of Alcohol Dehydration: Hydride Shift

Rearrangement of Alcohol Dehydration Hydride Shift

Reactions of Arenes

Reactions of Arenes

Preparations of Alkenyl Benzenes

Preparations of Alkenyl Benzenes

Preparation of Alkynes

Preparation of Alkynes

Physical Properties

Physical Properties

Ozonolysis of Alkenes

Ozonolysis of Alkenes

Other Mechanisms for Alcohol to Halogen

Other Mechanisms for Alcohol to Halogen

Nucleophilic Substitution and Elimination

Nucleophilic Substitution and Elimination

Nucleophilic Reactions: Solvents, Substrates, and Nucleophiles

Nucleophilic Reactions Solvents, Substrates, and Nucleophiles

Important Rules of Addition and Other Mechanisms and Stereochemistry Terms I

Important Rules of Addition and Other Mechanisms and Stereochemistry Terms 1

Important Rules of Addition and Other Mechanisms and Stereochemistry Terms II

Important Rules of Addition and Other Mechanisms and Stereochemistry Terms 2

Hydrogenation of Alkynes

Hydrogenation of Alkynes

Hydrogenation of Alkenes

Hydrogenation of Alkenes

Hydroboration-Oxidation of Alkenes

Hydroboration-Oxidation of Alkenes

Halogenation of Alkanes Mechanism

Halogenation of Alkanes Mechanism

Functional Groups

Functional Groups

Free-Radical Addition of Hydrogen Bromide

Free-Radical Addition of Hydrogen Bromide

Epoxidation of Alkenes

Epoxidation of Alkenes

Energy Differences

Energy Differences

Electrophilic Addition of Halogens

Electrophilic Addition of Halogens

E2 Mechanism: Alcohol Dehydration

E2 Mechanism Alcohol Dehydration

E1 Mechanism: Alcohol Dehydration

E1 Mechanism Alcohol Dehydration

Dienes and Their Reactions

Dienes and Their Reactions

Diels-Alder Reaction

Diels-Alder Reaction

Dehydrohalogenation E1/E2

Dehydrohalogenation E1E2

Conformations of Butane

Conformations of Butane

Confirmations of Disubstituent Cyclohexane

Confirmation of Disubstituent Cyclohexane

Common Names of Aromatic Compounds

Common Names of Aromatic Compounds

Aromatic Compounds

Aromatic Compounds

Allylic Reactions

Allylic Reactions

Alkenes to Vicinal Halohydrin

Alkenes to Vicinal Halohydrin

Alcohol Preparation

Alcohol Preparation

Addition Reactions and Ozonolysis of Alkynes

Addition Reactions and Ozonolysis of Alkynes

Addition of Sulfuric Acid and Hydration of Alkenes

Addition of Sulfuric Acids and Hydration of Alkenes

Addition of Halogens to Alkenes with Dihalides

Addition of Halogens to Alkenes with Dihalides

Acid-Catalyzed Hydration of Alkenes

Acid-Catalyzed Hydration of Alkenes

Biochemistry Study Guides

Alright, finally getting into the chemistry bits! These study guides are from a biochemistry class that I took in the fall of 2012. Again, if you happen to be browsing through these and see a mistake, feel free to correct it in comment. Enjoy.

Acid-Base Chemistry

Acid-Base Chemistry

Alpha HelicesAlpha Helices

Amino Acids and pKasAmino Acids and pKas

Amino AcidsAmino Acids

Base TautomersBase Tautomers

Beta SheetsBeta Sheets

Carbohydrates to KnowCarbohydrates to Know

ChymotrypsinChymotrypsin

Collagen and D vs L StereochemistryCollagen and D vs L Stereochemistry

Deoxyribonucleotide and Ribonucleotide NamesDeoxyribonucleotide and Ribonucleotide Names

Dihedral Angles and Ramachandran PlotsDihedral Angles and Ramachandran Plots

DisaccharidesDisaccharides

Formation of Hemiacetals and Hemiketals, Aldose/Ketose and Furanose/PyranoseFormation of Hemiacetals and Hemiketals, Aldose-Ketose and Furanose-Pyranose

Glycosidic Bonds and D-Ribose/DeoxyriboseGlycosidic Bonds and D-Ribose or Deoxyribose

HemeHeme

Hemoglobin and MyoglobinHemoglobin and Myoglobin

 

Hill EquationHill Equation

 

LipidsLipids

Methods for Determining C-TerminalMethods for Determining C-Terminal

Methods for Determining N-TerminalMethods for Determining N-Terminal

Michaelis-Menten Equation and Lineweaver-Burke PlotMichaelis-Menten Equation and Lineweaver-Burke Plot

Michaelis-Menten EquationMichaelis-Menten Equation

Phosphodiester BondsPhosphodiester Bond

 

Protein-Ligand InteractionsProtein-Ligand Interactions

Purines and PyrimidinesPurines and Pyrimidines

Reversible InhibitionReversible Inhibition

Sample Protein Sequencing ProblemSample Protein Sequencing Problem

Structure of DNA/RNA, Pentose Rings, Fischer Projections, and RiboseStructure of DNA-RNA, Pentose Rings, Fischer Projections, and Ribose

 

Cell Biology Study Guides

This is a re-posting of the notes I originally posted on reddit from a general cell biology class I took in spring 2011. I re-scanned them after signing all of them at the suggestion of another redditor. Here they are again in all of their glory.

Actin Filament

Actin Filaments

Apoptosis

Apoptosis

Cell Cycle and Cyclin

Cell Cycle and Cyclin

Endocytic Pathway

Endocytic Pathway

Epithelial Cells

Epithelial Cells

ER Pathways

ER Pathways

ER Transport

ER Transport

Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells

Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells

Extracellular Matrix

Extracellular Matrix

Glucose Transport

Glucose Transport

Glycolysis and Citric Acid Cycle

Glycolysis and Citric Acid Cycle

Intermediate Filaments

Intermediate Filaments

Internal and External Signaling in Cell Cycle

Internal and External Signalling in Cell Cycle

LDLs and Lysosomes

LDLs and Lysosomes

Lysosomal Enzymes

Lysosomal Enzymes

Membrane Structure

Membrane Structure

Microtubules

Microtubules

Mitochondrial Import

Mitochondrial Import

Nuclear Transport

Nuclear Transport

Oligosaccharide Glycosylation in the ER

Oligosaccharide Glycosylation in ER

Oxidative Phosphorylation

Oxidative Phosphorylation

Protein Structure

Protein Structure

Protein Transport

Protein Transport

Proteins and the ER

Proteins and the ER

Proteins with Multiple Stop Transfer Sequences

Proteins with Multiple Stop Transfer Sequences

Structure of Amino Acids

Structure of Amino Acids

Transport Pathways

Transport Pathways

Types of Transport

Types of Transport

Unfolded Protein Response

Unfolded Protein Response

Microbiology Study Guides

Here is a small number of study guides that I made for a Microbiology class that I took in fall 2011. There weren’t as many study guides for this particular class because I had several other classes that semester which required a lot more attention (*cough* Orgo II *cough*). Even so, these outline some basic micro concepts. Enjoy.

Cell Wall of Archaea

Cell Wall of Archea

Gram Stains

Gram Stains

Lytic Cycle

Lytic Cycle

Morphology and Motility

Morphology and Motility

Types of Leukocytes

Types of Leukocytes

T-Cell Recognition

T-Cell Recognition

Cell Wall of Bacteria

Cell Wall of Bacteria

Characteristics of Viruses

Characteristics of Viruses

Complement System

Complement System

FTS Proteins and Binary Fission

FTS Proteins and Binary Fission

Genetics Study Guides

These are the study aids I made for a Genetics class that I took in the fall of 2011. There is a lot of class-specific material in this set like the information relating to the Lac operon and Gal genes ¬†but there is also a fair amount of general genetics information. Also I made the pictures larger so you don’t need to click to see them. Enjoy!

Edit October 2014: I noticed there was some errors in the Regulation of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes picture so I updated the picture with the corrections.

Bacterial Genetics

Bacterial Genetics

Base Modification

Base Modification

Chromosomal Rearrangements I

Chromosomal Rearrangements (2)

Chromosomal Rearrangements II

Chromosomal Rearrangements (3)

Chromosomal Rearrangements III

Chromosomal Rearrangements

Cotranscriptional Processing of RNA

Cotranscriptional Processing of RNA

DNA Repair Mechanisms I

DNA Repair Mechanisms (2)

DNA Repair Mechanisms II

DNA Repair Mechanisms

DNA Replication

DNA Replication

DNA Structure

DNA Structure

Double Strand Break Repair

Double Strand Break Repair

Enhancesome Activity

Enhancesome Activity

Gal Gene Transcription in Eukaryotes

Gal Gene Transcription in Eukaryotes

Independent Assortment and Recombination

Independent Assortment and Recombination

Initiation of Replication

Initiation of Replication

Lac Operon Transcription

Lac Operon Transcription

Linked Genes

Linked Genes

Meiosis and Equal Segregation

Meiosis

miRNAS

miRNAs

Modified Mendelian Ratios and Complementation

Modified Mendelian Ratios

Operators, Repressors, and Glucose in Lac OperonOperators, Repressors, and Glucose in Lac Operon

Pedigree Analysis

Pedigree Analysis

Regulation of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes

Regulation of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes

 

Splicesome Assembly and Function

Spliceosome Assembly and Function

Telomeres

Telomeres

Transcription in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

Transcription in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

Translation Elongation and Termination

Translation Elongation and Termination

Translation Initiation

Translation Initiation